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Poland

The Republic of Poland is located in Central Europe, east of Germany. Here are some basic facts about my country of origin:


Maps

More detailed maps of Poland can be found at:

Digital Maps of Poland

Detailed maps of few largest Polish cities

Map of Poland (with Polish interface only)

There are 16 official administrative divisions (provinces) of Poland: Dolnoslaskie, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Lodzkie, Lubelskie, Lubuskie, Malopolskie, Mazowieckie, Opolskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Pomorskie, Slaskie, Swietokrzyskie, Warminsko-Mazurskie, Wielkopolskie, and Zachodniopomorskie (which I come from).

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National Symbols

National emblem. A white eagle turned to the right with a golden crown upon its head and a golden beak and talons, against a red background. As a heraldic emblem, the eagle appeared in the first half of the XIII century as the emblem of the Piast dynasty, became the official emblem of the entire state under the rule of W�adys�aw �okietek, and was adopted by the Sejm (lower house of Parliament) as the state emblem following Poland's regaining of independence in 1919. In 1927, a new image of the eagle was adopted by decree of the President of the Republic. It was based on a design by Prof. Z. Kami�ski and patterned on the emblem that existed during the reign of Stefan Batory, with a shape almost identical to the one used today. After 1945, the eagle was similar to the pre-war one, but without a crown (confirmed by decree in  1955). Since 1990, the white eagle has had a crown once again.

Legend. The story behind the Polish emblem is connected with the legend of Poland's founding. Three brothers Lech, Czech and Rus were traveling through the woods looking for land where they could settle. When they finally came out of woods, they saw a vast valley surrounded by hills and lakes. On the top of the highest hill was an old oak tree where an eagle had its nest. When brothers approached the oak tree, the eagle flew down and sat on Lech's shoulder. At that moment, Lech decided to adopt the white eagle as the emblem of his nation and founded his nation around the oak tree. Its name was Gniezno, which later became the first capital of Poland. Lech's brothers, Czech and Rus, each went off to look for their own lands to settle. Czech went to the south and founded the Czech Republic, and Rus went to the east and founded Russia.

Flag of Poland. The official Polish flag for general use consists simply of two horizontal fields of equal size, with the top one white and the bottom one red. In the vertical arrangement, white is to the right of red. The colors white and red were introduced as the national colors in 1831. The flag was officially adopted by the Sejm on 1 August 1919, and remains unaltered to this very day.

The flag that features Poland's white eagle set against a red shield on the white field is known as a "bandera" (ship's flag or ensign). According to Polish flag tradition, it is meant to be flown by Polish ships at sea and by Polish diplomatic missions and other official institutions abroad.

National anthem. The Polish anthem is the Mazurek D�browskiego, written by J. Wybicki in 1797. It became the national anthem in 1831, and has been the state anthem since 1927. In 1948, it was confirmed by the authorities of the Polish People's Republic and introduced to the constitution in 1976. 

Legal protection of the symbols of the state is guaranteed by the constitution. The conditions governing the use of the state flag and emblem and details of the national anthem are laid down by act of parliament.


Other Links

STATE AND POLITICAL SYSTEM
Parliament - SEJM Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
President of the Republic of Poland 
Chancellery of the Prime Minister

EDUCATION AND SCIENCE

State Committee for Scientific Research

Polish Academy of Sciences

University of Szczecin ; Faculty of Economics and Management (my first Master's degree)

Technical University of Szczecin ; Faculty of Computer Science and Information Systems (my second Master's degree)

 

OTHERS

Polish American Cultural Center